:: The End Times archive (

Not and Other Metalinguistic Stuff published 12/03/2016

some-people-hate-darth-vader-but-here-s-why-anakin-deserves-our-sympathy-before-and-afte-645643

Transparency, in the relevant sense of the word, is a property of certain linguistic contexts. It’s a property they have if they permit the substitution of co-referring terms. For example, before he encountered Darth Vader in Cloud City, Luke Skywalker knew that Anakin Skywalker was his father. He didn’t know that Darth Vader was his father. It came as quite a shock to him, after all, when he learned the sad truth. But ‘Darth Vader’ and ‘Anakin Skywalker’ refer to the same man. So the context ‘Luke Skywalker knew that _ was his father’ fails to be transparent. Only transparent contexts license the sort of inference needed to challenge monism.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Mahrad Almotahari.

» Read more...

imagination supposition, imagine. published 29/02/2016

pakibuz

The topic of imagination can evoke fancy, dreams, artistic abilities, in contrast with reality, facts, scientific abilities. Clearly this is a cliché and imagination, as I tried to show beforehand, is strongly connected to knowledge and the sciences. Stereotypically the humanities in general are tied to women, whereas the sciences to men. Moreover, among the humanities philosophy emerges as more masculine than languages or literature, for instance. But this does not stop here. Analytic philosophy is stereotypically masculine (though analytic feminism is increasing its visibility).

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Margherita Arcangeli.

» Read more...

The Pyrrhonian Skeptic published 28/02/2016

katja-vogt_by_jens-haas_3am-12

The conversation I am interested in is also facilitated by the fact that most Greek philosophy pre-dates monotheistic premises. This doesn’t mean that for Plato, Aristotle, Chrysippus, Epicurus, and so on, there is no such thing as divinity. But for them it is a question, and not one to which the answer is simply available, how one should think of a god. And for all the ancients know, the soul may well be physical. The main interlocutors of ancient skeptics, Stoics and Epicureans, think so. This is one reason why ancient skeptics would not come up with external world skepticism. To them, it is an alien idea that ‘the mind’ is different in the relevant, radical way, from ‘the world.’ Instead it is a highly complex part of the world. I think this is along the right lines, and a good reason to study these theories.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Katja Vogt, with images by Jens Haas.

» Read more...

All About the Ego Tunnel published 25/02/2016

egotunnel13

Conscious experience as such is an exclusively internal affair: Once all functional properties of your brain are fixed, the character of subjective experience is determined as well. If there was no unidirectional flow of time on the level of inner experience, then we would live our conscious lives in a bubble, perhaps like some simple animals or certain mystics – locked into an eternal Now. However, our phenomenal model of reality is not only 3D, but 4D: Subjective time flows forward, the phenomenal self is embedded into this flow, an inner history unfolds. That it is why it is not a bubble, but a tunnel.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Thomas K Metzinger.

» Read more...

Digital Ghosts published 20/02/2016

Future-Brain

Your whole body is just a system of cells. It’s like a library of interacting books, which all tell stories about each other. Or its like a network of interacting computers. You are a visceral internet, a living digital library. As part of your body, your brain is also digital. If it’s not digital, then what is it? Don’t say analog, because that’s just an infinity of bits. If it’s not digital, then it contains something that escapes binary division. Plato wrote about this in his Sophist, which I think is by far his best dialogue. If you don’t think the brain is digital, then you believe it contains a sophist. To use the Platonic imagery, the brain is a trackless wilderness, haunted by an uncanny shadow.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Eric Steinhart.

» Read more...

Scepticism and Early Wittgenstein published 13/02/2016

ludwig-wittgenstein-swansea

I had always been attracted to the challenge of understanding Wittgenstein’s enigmatic early work. The Tractatus is the result of a phenomenal burst of intellectual energy. Wittgenstein arrived in Cambridge in 1911 to work with Bertrand Russell. He was 22 years old, he spoke little English and had no philosophical training. By 1913 he had already developed some of the central ideas of the book. He wrote it while serving in the Austrian army during World War I. When the war ended in 1918 he had finished it. The book conveys an enormous sense of depth and mystery. You feel that he is on to something important, even if you can’t quite see what it is.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Jose Zalabardo.

» Read more...

Truth, Knowability, Mind and Romantic Love published 07/02/2016

romantic-movies---Casablanca-jpg

Romantic love is a classical philosophical topic, and while neuroscientists and psychologists have much to add, I am of the belief that this is one of the few areas left where philosophers have a clear advantage and can make genuine progress. What really drew me to this topic was my interest in the emotions. Add to that my bewilderment upon witnessing the puzzling tendency in the popular literature to focus either on the ‘feelings’ involved in love or the brain chemicals and neural correlates underlying them.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Berit Brogaard.

» Read more...

Nietzsche, Art and the Neo-Hegelian Commitment published 31/01/2016

enhanced-27782-1425577328-3

Some might see the Nazis, on this front, as having tried to put Nietzsche’s ideas into action in fashioning themselves as the Germanic inheritors of the Greco-Roman culture of the past. Think, in this vein, of all that neo-classical triumphalist architecture of Speer. They wanted to make a resplendent culture, in part by aestheticizing the political sphere, in that famous description due to Walter Benjamin. Nietzsche despised the nascent German Reich under Bismarck, despised power politics, and would have despised the Nazis. But his celebration of excellence, achievement, strength, and splendor, including when these come at the expense of ordinary morality, can leave him uncomfortably close to some ideas that took a hugely nasty turn—a turn, I again stress, that he wouldn’t have supported.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Andrew Huddleston.

» Read more...

Necessary Metaphysics published 17/01/2016

voya0426-bw

Metaphysics and science both examine and explain reality, even though the means by which they do so differ. So metaphysics and science share their subject matter, but not their methods. But this non-overlap of methods does not entail that science and metaphysics are two completely independent ways of asking questions about a common subject and providing answers to those questions. Instead, we insist that the methodological autonomy of metaphysics can be maintained even if metaphysicians also employ the empirical results of science — as they should.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Tuomas E Tahko.

» Read more...

The Hedonistic Utilitarian published 10/01/2016

KillingFields

Once we realise that utilitarianism comes with the idea of blameworthy rightdoing (such as when you push a big man onto the tracks in order to save five lives) and blameless wrongdoing (such as when you don’t push a big man onto the tracks in order to save five lives), then utilitarianism all of a sudden appears to give the right answers. It is indeed right to push the big man, but we should attempt not to become people who are prepared to do this, since this would, even if it helps us to the right decision in this abstract thought experiment, make us dangerous, nasty, and ones no one should want to socialise with.

Continuing the End Times series, Richard Marshall interviews Torbjörn Tännsjö .

» Read more...